5 programming languages ​​you need to learn immediately 🔥

💻 Development

In our imperfect world, you always need to sacrifice something. So when choosing a programming language, you will also have to find a compromise. We will tell you about 5 YPs that are worth exploring.

At first glance, it seems that all popular languages ​​are very similar to each other: their basic concepts are almost the same, and the tasks being solved are identical. But only an inexperienced person can come to this conclusion. 

A programming language for a developer is his tool, and the quality of the result, and the level of earnings, and career growth will depend on the correct choice of a working tool in any field of activity. 

First of all, it is worth thinking about the balance between the real benefits of learning a language and how much time and effort you will have to spend on learning. Assess the prospects for your choice. For example, at the beginning of the 2000s, high hopes were pinned on Ruby on Rails, was considered no less promising PHP… But the market is developing unpredictably, and now, after just a couple of years, it has become profitable to learn completely different languages. 

1. JavaScript

System investigation Stack Overflow 2018 of the year has shown that more 71%developers call JS the most demanded programming language. But only three years earlier, this figure did not exceed 54,5%.

JavaScript is used everywhere today. Using JS frameworks (Vue, Angular and React) web applications are created. Outside the browser by Node.js lets you write server-side applications (in the same language that you use to write the client code). The Node platform allows you to design web services, regulate the Internet of Things, and experiment with artificial intelligence. 

A key advantage of JS lies in the broad software support it has from influential corporations such as Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Google, Amazon, and Facebook. Another important advantage of JavaScript is the availability and wide range of training materials, courses, web resources, reference books, video tutorials, and specialized blogs.

JS has long been a kind of ugly duckling. While it would be an exaggeration to call it a beautiful swan now, since its inception, it has truly made an impressive transformation from a common browser scripting language to a versatile modern language. 

Note that most employers assess their knowledge of JavaScript implicit functions when interviewing potential candidates. Be prepared to be asked about closures, callbacks, variable scope, and conditionals. Before interviewing an interviewer, try to find out more about the company so that you can successfully demonstrate your skills in working with frameworks.

2. Python

By survey results the same Stack Overflow, 37,9%developers regularly use Python. This programming language has distinguished itself by the fact that over the past 5 years its popularity has grown much faster than that of its competitors. Mentions of him even appeared on the pages of the British edition of The Economist, although the magazine had never previously shown interest in the topic of software development.

What’s the secret to Python’s popularity? The answer lies in simple design rules: it is easier to write code here than in other languages, if only because you do not need to write the “ »After each operator. 

Python has become much more often taught in universities and schools. Gradually, he joined the academic environment. Perhaps it is the most famous general-purpose programming language: it is used for teaching AI and in datalogy. Due to the active use of Python, it was recently proposed to combine it with the R language.

If you want to find a job that will be related to Python, get ready to show in the interview a deep knowledge of its general functions ( classes, data types, modules, etc. ), as well as the nuances of using as a scripting, functional and OO language. But the employer will love it even more if you show an understanding of specific issues such as decorators, arrays, dictionaries, and tuples.

3. Java

Deserved third place with 45.5% of developer votes. The main advantage of this programming language is the JVM. A virtual machine can run any of the languages ​​on all hardware platforms and device types. 

Thus, Java greatly simplifies the work of programmers, which is why it is so popular among large companies. In addition, Java is used to create native mobile applications for the OS. Android- the undisputed leader of the modern market. And this is another good reason to study it. 

Indeed, the JVM is being used more and more actively: both for the development of new languages ​​and for adapting existing ones. But it is precisely because of the versatility of Java that job seekers can find it difficult to navigate interviews. 

Demonstrate knowledge of the language infrastructure, understanding of the JVM and JRE virtual machine, and the JDK first if you are applying for the position of an enterprise application developer. In the case of Android programs, the emphasis should be on SDK, emulation, and deployment. JVM skills will also give an advantage here.

4. C #

According to Stack Overflow, Microsoft C # fans in 2018 were 35.5% of the total number of developers surveyed. And although Java is still ahead of C # in all ratings, experts predict that the situation will change very soon. 

The fact is that Java has been updating its functionality for a relatively long time, while Microsoft is actively developing and improving C #. This is how the company tries to cope with its addiction to Windows. For the same purpose, Xamarin was bought, the .NET platform was released, and investment in Azure continues. Microsoft representatives, building a new development strategy, have relied on C # and are now making tremendous efforts to make the language compatible not only with the company’s technologies, but also with open standards. 

The C # ecosystem is similar in scale to Java: it’s just as huge. Therefore, before interviewing, it is imperative to find out the position of the potential employer in the market. You must be good at Microsoft.NET Framework and the CLR. And if a company uses multiple CLR languages, then it’s worth learning each one.

5.C, C ++

Despite the different programming models, these languages ​​are closely related. The first, C, is no longer used to create applications, user interfaces, and ML – it has been supplanted by the other languages ​​described above. However, C is still used in OS and embedded systems. A striking example is the well-known Linux, the kernel of which is written in C. 

In addition, C is at the heart of other popular languages, including the acclaimed Python.

C ++ is a more advanced modern version of C. When performance comes first in application development, C ++ is the one that is chosen for writing. Financial companies prefer to use this language in their internal systems. And the high speed of C ++ allowed him to conquer the segment of the development of graphic applications: games, VR and AR, graphics engines. 

If you want to get a job with C or object-oriented C ++, expect questions in your interview about data, objects, classes, operators, lists, pointers, properties, loops, methods, etc.

Worthy of a Mention

We have reviewed general-purpose programming languages. Now it’s time to discuss highly specialized languages, that is, those that are used in specific industries.

We managed to attract the attention of developers Apple swift- a new alternative to Objective-C. Applications for Mac OS and iOS are created on it. Hoping that Swift will become server-side over time, Apple has endowed it with a free license (open source software), but so far the corporation’s hopes have not materialized.

Still not losing ground PHP… The existing limitations and alternatives did not prevent this language from staying afloat on Wikipedia. Facebook also uses PHP, moreover, the company has started to modernize it and released a version of Hack. The popular WordPress platform and the MediaWiki PHP engine create their own plugins. 

In the field of systems programming, languages ​​from Google and Mozilla have good prospects: Go and Rust, respectively. They are focused on the development of highly competitive systems. 

When it comes to functional programming, the emphasis should be on Erlang. It will be good to know its competitor Elixir, as well as the Lisp dialect acting on the JVM. Due to the large number of in-demand features, F # deserves attention.

And if you are attracted by the fast-growing area of ​​smart contacts and the digital currency Ethereum, start exploring Solidity. 

In conclusion: how to make the right choice of programming language? 

We have reviewed the five recommended languages ​​for learning. But how to choose one suitable from them? Given current trends, it’s best not to pass up JavaScript because it is the most versatile and widely used language today. It is compatible with most devices and allows you to create client-side, serverless, and web applications. JS has evolved a lot over the past decade and has moved closer to C # and Lisp. Of course, it has its drawbacks, but they are less noticeable than before. 

Looking to the future, we recommend choosing Python. It is already being actively used for scientific and educational purposes and is beginning to dominate data science, AI and machine learning. JavaScript is better suited for writing user interfaces, but over time Python should reduce this advantage. 

The first premise is that the Wasm standard makes it possible to create browser-based applications in all high-level languages. And the second is that if the popularity of voice interfaces grows, graphical ones will fade into the background. Python is superior in this regard: it is at the heart of the Amazon Echo virtual acoustic assistant. 

Good for career development and Java with C #. Which one to choose depends solely on your taste preferences or employer requirements, since the syntax, ecosystem, infrastructure, procedures and functions are similar in them. On the one hand, Java is older and more in demand than C #. But thanks to technical support and Microsoft’s intention to make C # cross-platform, over time, it could become the best tool for programming. Java is still an Android language, but thanks to Xamarin and C # it is possible to create applications for mobile OS. 

Note that startups rarely work with C #. In Silicon Valley, he is also not very respectful. In any case, whatever you choose, do not try to subdue the employer by knowing certain functions. It is much more important to be able to write idiomatic code and backend applications. You will demonstrate your style of handling functions while solving real problems.

C is a general-purpose programming language, just like C ++. But as practice shows, they are more often used in specific areas: C in embedded systems, and C ++ when writing resource-intensive applications with high performance.  

PS Before the interview, try to master all the subtleties of the language in which you are going to write. A good knowledge base can help you overcome your anxiety and show yourself in a positive light. Remember that if you thoroughly understand the pros and cons of your language, all its potential and possibilities, then there will definitely be a job.

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